|Abstracts, Journals, and Technical Papers|
|The Following Abstracts, Journals, and Technical Papers are maintained in the strictest confidence by “Scientific Frontline®”. Some papers are password and encryption protected and will require a password from the author. Contact information will be listed or obtained through our office depending upon authors request. This is a free service to the scientific and research community. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted to the full extent allowed by local and international law. See “Disclaimer Page” Questions regarding use or submission can be obtained through the “Contact Us” page|
|Renovation And Resources Savings|
Mechanisms are hardy: there are still at work
typewriters and stitchers the firsts.
RENOVATION AND RESOURCES SAVINGS
Dr. Roman Denissov, Eng. Sergei Yakushev, Eng. Aivar Ustav
Abstract. In conditions of resources deficiency, to save materials, there was a question to create having small outside inflow «manufacture - consumption – recycling – manufacture again» closed cycle, but it could be even more attractive «consumption - renovation - consumption again» cycle. There are shown in the article taking as example the renovation of automobiles using low-power electro motors the renovation is more perspective resources to save principle to settled, low-liable to technical progress articles. As at insignificant expenses it allows to save already spent resources, to exclude charges on recycling, manufacture cycle recurring and inevitable to it materials losses. But, each case it will need to make special renovating technology and equipment, using decisions can contain know-how and be patenting clean.
Renovation - full restoration of initial consumer properties of products. It is widely known as a method of cultural heritage preservation, in applying to works of art, architectural constructions, old samples of techniques, for example, to automobiles, motorcycles, etc. – like a "retro" fashion. In many cases renovation includes modern convenience making, service life prolonging new decisions and materials, i.e. it permits modernization.
Modern technical products are characterized by a variety of materials and a plenty of permanent connections. It creates difficult problems of their recycling. Furthermore recycling sets the purpose to separate the most valuable materials, thus the significant resources spent for manufacturing are completely destroyed.
Therefore, to lines of products being to obsolescence low-liable the renovation is favorable for ecology and the economic decision. Could it appear in view of process optimization it is required to develop some technical decisions which will have a novelty.
Example. By us it is developed, containing know-how, small electro motors (12V and 24V, ~100W) collectors restoring technology, used in automobiles. Most quickly, up to 150000 km run, they wear out in continuously operating fuel pumps and conditioners.
- Aluminium alloys,
- Alloyed steels,
- Protecting coats materials,
- High-conductive copper (99,9 %),
- Graphite composites,
- Soft-magnetic and hard-magnetic materials.
The last ones are the most value as their manufacture concerns to precision technologies, i.e. there is to impurity and other conditions especially sensitive. Their recycling and processing will be connected to significant expenses.
So technological process of soft-magnetic steel manufacture is rather combined (a sheet set on a rotor, see a photo 1 or 2), it can include hot and cold rolling, intermediate annealing, cold rolling and 1100 - 1500 ºС final annealing, in combining to high requirements to sheet uniformity .
Direct current electric motors having less than 1hp capacity there are applied stators having permanent magnets made by powder metallurgy methods.
There are much hard-magnetic materials. The best characteristics have expensive cobalt-containing (up to 50 % Co) magnets and modern ones rare-earth elements having (Sm, Nd ~ 10-20%) [1, 2]. Using in magnets manufacturing the powder metallurgy technology is very complex in operation. Generally, it implies high temperature pressing, making in a protective atmosphere, in conditions of the imposed magnetic field, preliminary powder stirring (vibration), so one-domain particles have been oriented on a field by easy magnetizing axes and fixed in this position .
Our case renovation process consists of: disassembling, a visual condition estimating, cleaning, collector renovation, replacement of brushes and assembling, stand checking. Converting of copper to firm low-temperature phase allows to raise collector wear resistance (NB! - modernization). Most there is worn out one element only - a collector, but sometimes, because of dirty penetration some surfaces deterioration is found out in the pumps. Then these surfaces re-grind, or put new details, or the pump is rejected (~1 %). That way renovating pumps and conditioners are new one similar by the characteristics and resource. Seven years practice confirms it.
In our example, the quantity of the technological operations being needed final product to get is much less, than the pump to manufacture, there is low in equipment, unhealthy or ecology injury processes are absent, but for the present there is big share of manual skills determining time losses. Being renovation to present in lot scale business it will be similar to usual assembly manufacture, the share of manual skills will fall. As a result, having insignificant expenses, to reuse having involved resources will not be saved only, but more: it will be excluded recycling expenses, recurrence of a manufacture cycle and inevitable materials losses.
Low-power motors are articles of mass production and wide application and renovation after they can be mounted to other body being adapted to other unit. This opportunity represents renovation flexibility.
Basically implying details replacing and service the industrial renovation of expensive units like a spare parts repeated producing is in practice for a long time, see for example . But, to reduce a share of recycling and to extend the renovation to a lot of products, the same efforts and ingenuity will be required, as well new techniques samples to create.
Developed by us approaches and experience can be of interest first of all to developers of the resources save programs, initiative private businesses and to manufacturers.
Authors express gratitude to eng. A.Borshchevsky useful discussions for.
1 А.А.Преображенский, Е.Г.Бишард. Магнитные материалы и элементы. – 3- изд. Москва, 1986, 352 с.
2. BOSCH. Автомобильный справочник. – Москва, «За рулём», 2002, 896 с. (Перевод с англ. – BOSCH. Automotive Handbook. – 4 th, Edition).
15. 07. 2006 Tallinn, Estonia
Eng. Aivar Ustav e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Scientific Frontline® Is supported in part by “readers like you”|