Scientific Frontline® On-Site Search Engine by Google Co-op
Current UTC Time
News Home, where you will find the "Current Top Stories"The Communication Center contains current news briefs from major Universities, NASA, ESA, and the top three Aviation Mfg.Science section contains all the latest knowledge in Medical Research, Archeology, Biology, and other General Science NewsThe latest in Computer, Nanotechnology, and General Technological advancements.The latest in Aviation achievements in civil, military, and space aviationCurrent Earth Science and Environmental discoveries.The E.A.R., Environmental Awareness Report. E.A.R. will keep you advised of Environmental Alerts, Government, University, and public projects. The World News Report,  news from the Voxant Viral Syndication, known as the Newsroom. Contains the latest videos from major news sources.All the current space discoveries from Hubble, Spitzer, Chandra X-Ray, ESO, Gemini, Subaru, ESA, NASA, and many more. The latest in space theories from leading astronomers and scientist from around the world.The Space Weather Forecast Center by Scientific Frontline, Current up-to-date space weather, forecasts, alerts and warnings. Images from SOHO, GOES, and STEREOThe Cassini Main Page. Containing all the latest news from the Cassini Spacecraft around Saturn. Leading into Cassini status reports, The Cassini Gallery of all the latest images from Cassini. Seeing Saturn and all her moons like never before.The International Space Station Main Page. Containing all the latest news from the ISS. Leading into ISS status reports, The ISS Gallery of all the latest images from the ISS. Cloudy Nights Telescope Reviews / An Atronomical CommunityStellar Nights, A Journey Into The Stars from Scientific Frontline. A collection of informative facts about stellar objects in our universe.Daily Sky maps, Celestial Events Calendar, and Reports from the PCW Memorial Observatory by Erika RixListing of Current potential impacts from (NEO'S) Near Earth objects as detected by the NASA / JPL Sentry SystemThe news archive from Scientific Frontline's past articles. A world of knowledge at your fingertips.Abstracts, Journals, and Technical papers maintained by Scientific Frontline. The Scientific Frontline Gallery, containing photographs, sketches, and video's of Space, Science, Aviation, and Environment. Open to the public to comment and contribute.The Scientific Frontline Discussion Rooms. Open to the public.Site Related links from major universities, government and private research labs.The link page of the web rings Supported and maintained by Scientific Frontline.Assorted Downloads related to space, science, aviation, including screensavers and ASTROMONY SOFTWARE, and other endorsed programs.The foundation of an online publication by SFL ORG. News Network called Scientific FrontlineContact page to Scientific Frontline / SFL ORG. News NetworkDisclaimer / Legal Notice for use of the SFL ORG. News Network's publication Scientific Frontline
The Communication Center / Univ. Achievements & Awards

News Brief Categories
Announcements | Aviation | Achievements & Awards | Boeing | ESA | Lockheed Martin | Medical | NASA | Northrop Grumman | Science | Space | Technology |
Univ. Announcements | Univ. Achievements & Awards | Univ. Grants & Funding | Univ. Medical | Univ. Science | Univ. Space | Univ. Technology | Womens Health

Australian Doctor Awarded For Uncovering Smallpox Bioterrorism Risk

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

A University of Sydney professor who developed a system to combat bioterrorism has received a major award from the US military.

Professor Raina Maclntyre has won the 2007 Sir Henry Wellcome Medal and Prize from the Association of Military Surgeons of the US (AMSUS*) for developing the world's first system to comprehensively rank the different types of bioterrorism risks - an honor for a non-US and non-military person.

Professor Maclntyre's risk-priority scoring system for the most severe (category A) bioterrorism agents, published in the journal Military Medicine, will help governments prepare for potential attacks.

"Traditionally government decisions about the risk of attack by a particular agent have been made simply on the basis of the probability of attack," said Professor MacIntyre, from the University's National Center for Immunization Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases and the Faculty of Medicine.

"We hypothesized that multiple factors should be considered other than probability of attack - including the severity of an attacks consequences, the potential for person-to-person transmission, the potential for an agent to genetically modify, the relative ease of decontamination, and the availability of vaccinations."

Professor MacIntyre and her team exhaustively reviewed the history of bioterrorist incidents, the known science about each agent, and the transmission potential of each category A agent. Synthesizing this information into a matrix of 10 different categories of threat allowed them to create a "priority score" for each agent.

"We found that anthrax and smallpox are the highest priority, followed by viral hemorrhagic fevers, botulism, plague and tularemia," she said. "Anthrax topping the list is not a surprise, because it is widely available globally and easy to weaponize, but smallpox scoring highly is a surprise."

The high priority for smallpox flies in the face of the low priority governments have given to it on the basis of probability of attack alone, according to Professor MacIntyre. Although the global supply of the smallpox virus is limited, it has high person-to-person transmission rates, high fatality rates, and it has the potential for high numbers of infections and to be genetically modified into more virulent strains.

"Governments will benefit from this research in that it provides a framework and a tool for rationally and efficiently assigning priority for bioterrorism agents - and therefore planning stockpiles of drugs, vaccines and other supplies," Professor MacIntyre said.

Professor MacIntyre will receive the award in November at the AMSUS conference in Salt Lake City.

* AMSUS is the medical professional body of the US military

Background notes on bioterrorism:

The use of biological agents ("Biowarfare", "bioterrorism") dates back at least to 300 B.C, when the Greeks, Romans and Persians used cadavers to contaminate the water supplies of their enemies.

The Japanese used biowarfare with plague and anthrax against the Chinese in Manchuria in the 1930s and 1940s. The former Soviet Union had an unparalleled bioweapons program which developed sophisticated weaponized anthrax, plague, smallpox and viral hemorrhagic fevers, and continued large scale work well into the 1990s despite signing the Biological Weapons Convention.

Bioterrorism is still a concern - in 2001 in the USA, anthrax spores were mailed to several cities and resulted in 11 cases of inhalation anthrax and five deaths. The economic consequences of this attack were disproportionate to the number of cases, with the shut-down of essential services such as the US Postal Service.

Potential bioterrorist agents are classified by there severity into category A (the most severe) and category B (less severe). Category A agents include anthrax, smallpox, tularemia, plague, botulism and viral hemorrhagic fevers (eg. Ebola and Marburg viruses).

Image Caption: We found that anthrax and smallpox are the highest priority, followed by viral hemorrhagic fevers, botulism, plague and tularemia, said Professor MacIntyre

Image Credit: University of Sydney

Source: University of Sydney


Time Stamp: 9/18/2007 at 12:48:14 PM CST

Scientific Frontline®
The Comm Center
Space Weather Alerts
Stellar Nights®
The E.A.R.®
World Report News
Photo, Sketches, & Video Gallery

Post 54 Univ. Achievements & Awards 02 Use navigation to scroll this category

Scientific Frontline®, Stellar Nights®, E.A.R.®, and Environmental Awareness Report®
Are Registered Trademarks of the
Online Publication of the SFL ORG. News Network
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma USA
© 2005 - 2007 All Rights Reserved

AddThis Social Bookmark Button