. Scientific Frontline: Category Descriptions

Category Descriptions

Anthropology (Main Branch)
The study of humanity across time and cultures. Focuses on understanding human evolution, cultural diversity, social structures, and language.

Top Sub-branches: Cultural Anthropology, Linguistic Anthropology, Biological Anthropology, Archaeology

Archaeology (Sub-branch of Anthropology)
Studies past human societies and cultures through the analysis of material remains such as artifacts, architecture, and modified landscapes.

Artificial Intelligence (Main Branch)
The development of computer systems that can perform tasks typically requiring human intelligence. Seeks to create machines that can learn, reason, perceive, and act autonomously.

Top Sub-branches: Machine Learning, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Robotics, Expert Systems

Astronomy (Main Branch)
The study of celestial objects and phenomena beyond the Earth's atmosphere. Encompasses stars, planets, galaxies, nebulae, and the universe as a whole.

Top Sub-branches: Astrophysics, Cosmology, Planetary Science, Astrobiology, Stellar Astronomy

Aviation (Main Branch)
The design, development, and operation of aircraft. Includes the science of flight, as well as the practical and regulatory aspects of flying.

Top Sub-branches: Aeronautics, Avionics, Air Traffic Control, Aerospace Engineering, Aircraft Maintenance

Behavioral Science (Main Branch)
An interdisciplinary field studying the behavior of humans and animals. Examines actions and interactions through systematic analysis and investigation.

Top Sub-branches: Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Ethology, Criminology

Biology (Main Branch)
The study of life and living organisms. Investigates structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of all living things.

Top Sub-branches: Zoology, Botany, Microbiology, Genetics, Ecology, Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Physiology

Chemistry (Main Branch)
The study of matter, its properties, composition, and how it changes. Examines the structure of atoms and molecules, and the interactions between substances.

Top Sub-branches: Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Biochemistry

Computer Science (Main Branch)
The study of computation, algorithms, and the design of computer systems. Involves  theory, programming, software, and hardware.

Top Sub-branches: Artificial Intelligence, Data Science, Software Engineering, Computer Graphics, Algorithms & Data Structures, Networking

Conservation (Main Branch)
The practice of protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment. Aims to manage and sustain biodiversity, ecosystems, and habitats.

Top Sub-branches: Wildlife Conservation, Habitat Restoration, Sustainable Resource Management, Environmental Policy, Ecotourism

Earth Science (Main Branch)
A broad term encompassing all fields related to the planet Earth. Studies our planet's composition, structure, processes, and history.

Top Sub-branches: Geology, Meteorology, Oceanography, Hydrology, Climatology, Atmospheric Science.

Ecology (Sub-branch of Biology)
Studies the interactions between organisms and their environment. Examines relationships between living things and their physical surroundings, including both biotic and abiotic factors.

Engineering (Main Branch)
Applies scientific and mathematical principles to design and build structures, machines, and systems. Solves practical problems across various sectors.

Top Sub-branches: Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Aerospace Engineering

Environmental Science (Main Branch) 
A broad, interdisciplinary field that studies the environment and its interactions with humans.  Draws on ecology, chemistry, geology, and other sciences to address environmental issues and find solutions for sustainability.

Top Sub-branches: Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Biology, Atmospheric Science, Environmental Policy and Management, Environmental Engineering

Forensic Science (Interdisciplinary Field)
Applies scientific principles and techniques to the analysis of evidence in criminal investigations. Draws on various branches like chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science.

Genetics (Sub-branch of Biology)
The study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms. It examines how traits are passed down through generations and the mechanisms of gene expression, function, and regulation.

Ichthyology (Sub-branch of Zoology)
Focuses specifically on the study of fish, including their anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology, and evolution.

Marine Biology (Sub-branch of Biology)  
Studies the diverse life forms in oceans and saltwater environments. Encompasses organisms from microscopic plankton to large whales, their interactions, and their habitats.

Materials Science (Interdisciplinary Field)
Investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at different scales (atomic, molecular, etc.) and their properties. Combines elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering.

Medical Science (Main Branch)
The science of health, disease, and its treatment. Encompasses a wide range of fields that investigate the human body to diagnose, treat, and prevent illnesses.

Top Sub-branches: Pathology, Pharmacology, Immunology, Anatomy, Physiology, Epidemiology

Microbiology (Sub-branch of Biology)
Studies microscopic organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Investigates their structure, function, genetics, and their impact on human health and the environment.

Molecular Science (Interdisciplinary field)
The study of the structure and properties of molecules, the building blocks of matter. It has strong overlaps with chemistry and biology.

Nanotechnology (Interdisciplinary Field)
Deals with the manipulation and engineering of matter at incredibly small scales on the level of atoms and molecules. Has applications across multiple fields like medicine, electronics, and materials science.

Neuroscience (Sub-branch of Biology)
Focuses on the study of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Investigates how the nervous system develops, functions, and its role in behavior and cognition.

Nutritional Science (Interdisciplinary Field)
Studies the role of food and nutrients in human health and disease.  Incorporates aspects of biochemistry, physiology, and food science.

Paleontology (Sub-branch of Earth Science)
Studies the history of life on Earth through the fossil record. Examines the remains of ancient organisms to understand evolution, past environments, and changes over geological time.

Pharmaceutical Science (Interdisciplinary Field)
The science of designing, developing, producing, and delivering safe and effective drugs. Blends aspects of chemistry, biology, medicine, and pharmacology.

Physics (Main Branch)
The fundamental science that studies matter, energy, and their interactions. Seeks to understand the underlying laws of the universe, from subatomic particles to vast cosmological structures.

Top Sub-branches: Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Electromagnetism, Optics, Astrophysics

Planetary Science (Sub-branch of Astronomy)
Studies planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and other celestial bodies within our solar system and beyond. Investigates their formation, composition, geology, and atmospheres.

Psychiatry (Sub-branch of Medical Science)
The medical specialty focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. Combines aspects of medicine, neuroscience, and psychology.

Psychology (Main Branch)
The study of the mind and behavior.  Examines mental processes, emotions, motivations, and how they influence actions and interactions with the world.

Top Sub-branches: Clinical Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Social Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience

Quantum Science (Interdisciplinary Field)
Focuses on the study of quantum phenomena, the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic level. Has applications  in computing, cryptography, and materials science.

Social Science (Main Branch)
The umbrella term for fields that study human society and social relationships. Investigates aspects like culture, economics, politics, law,  and history.

Top Sub-branches: Sociology, Economics, Political Science, Anthropology, History, Human Geography

Space Science (Interdisciplinary Field)
Broadly encompasses the scientific study of space. Involves fields like astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science, and space physics.

Space Weather (Sub-branch of Space Science)
Studies how activity on the Sun affects conditions in space, including its impact on Earth's atmosphere and technological systems.

Spacecraft Design & Engineering (Sub-branch of Engineering)
The field focused on designing and building spacecraft for exploration, communication, and scientific research. Combines aerospace and other engineering disciplines.

Technology (Applied Science)
The application of scientific knowledge to create practical tools, devices, and processes that solve problems and improve our lives. Technology is not a scientific field itself, but it's deeply intertwined with science and relies on scientific discoveries for advancement.

Veterinary Science (Sub-branch of Medical Science)
Focuses on the health and well-being of animals. Involves the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases in domesticated and wild animals.

Virology (Sub-branch of Microbiology)
Specifically studies viruses, their structure, replication, how they cause disease, and the development of vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Zoology (Sub-branch of Biology)
The study of animals, encompassing their anatomy, physiology, behavior, evolution, and ecology.

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